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*** Photography Sticky *** Gallleries, guides, links, for sale and more ...

Discussion in 'Photography & Video' started by A.N.Other, Aug 1, 2008.

  1. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    The OcUK Photography Forum Sticky
    New and improved. Last updated 08/11/2009.

    Contents

    Member galleries
    Useful links
    Your own site
    Displaying images on the forum
    Jargon buster
    Aperture, shutter speed and ISO
    Filters
    What to consider when buying?
    Photographers' rights
    For sale posts and adding your gallery to the list
     
    Last edited: Nov 8, 2009
  2. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    Member Galleries

    Please note that although galleries may offer a printing service and sell images, the forum should not be used as a means to advertise. Please keep conversations about sales or interest in a photographer's services away from the forums. Most websites will have a means of directly contacting the member, else you can always find an e-mail address through a members profile or trust account. Private messages are disabled on these forums.

    A.N.Other ............................. http://www.flickr.com/gyphotography/
    An Exception ......................... http://www.rhysphotograph.me
    adamph ................................ http://adam-ph.deviantart.com/
    blastman .............................. http://www.tristandrinkwater.co.uk
    CyKey .................................. http://www.flickr.com/petecarr/
    dark_shadow ......................... http://darkshadow-ay.deviantart.com/
    Darkmage88 .......................... http://danleach.deviantart.com/
    Fusion .................................. http://intrepidphoto.zenfolio.com/
    greedy123 ............................. http://laughsofgreed.deviantart.com/
    greywolf ............................... http://www.flickr.com/djcopeman/
    GSXRMovistar.......................... http://www.facebook.com/AndyBakerPhotography
    ............................................ http://www.flickr.com/AndyBakerUK/
    growse ................................. http://photos.growse.com/
    Helium_Junkie ......................... http://www.tiltedsky.net/
    ............................................ http://jekkel.deviantart.com/
    Howard ................................. http://www.hcanning.co.uk/
    icabod_crane ......................... http://www.rmjb.co.uk/
    InvaderGIR ............................ http://www.finaldecap.co.uk
    ........................................... http://finaldecap.deviantart.com/
    JamesU2005 .......................... http://www.flickr.com/jamesundies/
    Jimbo Mahoney ...................... http://www.lenstheory.com/
    Jonny_no2 ............................ http://www.jonnyhope.co.uk/
    ............................................ http://ayajonny.deviantart.com
    King4aDay ............................. http://hairytoes.deviantart.com/gallery
    knowledge123 ........................ http://picasaweb.google.com/knowledge123.david/
    knowlesy .............................. http://pjk-photography.co.uk
    Lord_Scott ............................ http://www.internalreflections.co.uk/
    lukechad ............................... http://www.lcphoto.weebly.com/
    martinturner .......................... http://www.flickr.com/martinturner
    mattius ................................. http://www.mattinglis.com/
    Mohain .................................. http://www.flickr.com/mohain/
    ............................................ http://mohain.deviantart.com/
    Mr Jones ............................... http://www.flickr.com/cjonesphotography/
    ............................................ http://cjonesphotography.deviantart.com/
    mrk ...................................... http://www.robbiekhan.co.uk/
    Muban .................................. http://muban.deviantart.com/
    NorthstaNder ......................... http://www.flickr.com/northstander
    Panser_bjorn ......................... http://www.flickr.com/dworrall
    peterattheboro ...................... http://www.prtphotography.com
    ........................................... http://prtphotography.deviantart.com/
    RichDay ................................ http://www.waxer.net/
    Rikk ...................................... http://rikk.smugmug.com/
    Rilot ..................................... http://rilot.deviantart.com/
    robergilbert86 ........................ http://robertgilbert86.deviantart.com/
    ........................................... http://rgphoto.co.uk/
    scarysquirrel .......................... http://www.flickr.com/scarysquirrel/
    scoop ................................... http://stochastic.webhop.org/
    Scuzi .................................... http://scuzi.deviantart.com/
    Shimmyhill .............................. http://shimmyhill.deviantart.com/
    Shoei .................................... http://www.flickr.com/shoei
    sid ....................................... http://www.thezeitgeist.eu
    steveo .................................. http://flickr.com/stevenjames1982/
    SteveOBHave ......................... http://www.flickr.com/stevetenhave/
    StoutMeister .......................... http://www.svk1.zenfolio.com/
    Sul ....................................... http://ximensions.deviantart.com
    ............................................ http://www.flickr.com/ximensions
    syke ..................................... http://www.adamfrater.com/
    ............................................ http://www.flickr.com/adamfrater/
    Tenzen ................................. http://www.reflectionsoflight.co.uk/
    TerraS .................................. http://flickr.com/terras
    V-Spec ................................. http://tgphotographic.com/
    woodsy2k .............................. http://picasaweb.google.com/chuck2

    Find other OcUK members in the Flickr group here
     
    Last edited: Feb 2, 2012
  3. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    Useful Links

    OCUK Digital Camera Range

    Camera Insurance
    Your home insurance might cover camera gear, so check that out as a first port of call. Things to look out for from insurance companies are public liability cover (if you need it) and whether they do vehicle cover (and if so, what sorts of cars).
    E&L
    Insurancewide.com
    Photoguard.co.uk

    Online Photo Printing
    Photobox.co.uk
    Byphotos.com

    Memory Card Recovery Programs
    Lots of cards have CDs that come with them with recovery software on. If you've got one, then you may as well use it. Note that in Windows, many recovery applications require the card to appear as a drive (rather than as a camera), so you might have to go and buy a card reader if you don't have one already.
    Mac ($99) Data rescue II
    Windows, Mac and Linux (free) PhotoRec
    Windows and Mac ($29) Photo Rescue
    Windows (free) PC Inspector file recovery
    Windows (free) Recuva

    SLR Manufacturer Sites
    Canon
    Nikon
    Pentax
    FujiFilm
    Olympus
    Sony
    Samsung
    Panasonic

    3rd Party Lens Manufacturer Sites
    Sigma
    Tamron
    Tokina

    Accessories
    Manfrotto
    Giottos
    Velbon
    Tamrac
    Lowepro
    Crumpler

    Review and Testing Sites
    Fred Miranda
    Photozone
    DP Review
    Megapixel.net
    Photodo
    Steves Digicams

    Photography Forums
    TalkPhotography
    Fred Miranda
    Canon Digital Photography Forums
    Nikonians
    DP Review
    Inspiring Photography Forums
    Phototakers
    DC Mag
    Deviantart
    Luminous Landscape
    Photo.net
    Photosig

    Photography Courses and Tutorials
    ShortCourses
    A very comprehensive set of e-books that are definitely worth a read. There's something on everything - from using the camera and basic lighting set-ups, to workflow systems and displaying and printing photos.
    Making photographs
    Especially good on explaining how to get the best out of your camera with different types of light (direct sunlight, mist, flash etc). Information on how to use a lens for different effects and some good stuff on understanding exposure.
    Studio tutorial
    A guide on how to use studio lighting to best effect and on poses of models.
    Canon tutorial
    Canon's own (though it's equally useful for those with other makes of camera) step-by-step guide through the parts of the camera and lens, including the usual on exposure. Thorough and fairly interactive.
    Morguefile tutorials
    Goes through the basics of exposure and gives some information on different sorts of lenses. Some good information on basic rules of composure, as well as on studio lighting.

    Image Upload Sites
    If you have an account with Flickr or your own web server, then you can link images to display on the forum from there, but otherwise, you'll need to upload them to one of these sites.
    Imageshack
    FreeImageHosting
    Photobucket
    UploadHouse
    PutFile
    TinyPic

    Your own site

    Setting up your own site is actually surprisingly simple, if you've always discounted it as an option. It doesn't cost that much, can allow large numbers of photos to be put up, with high amounts of traffic ... and gives you a posh e-mail address! If you're thinking of setting up your own site, then you'll need to know who to host it with. The rating system here is great, along with the specific comments. You'll also be needing an FTP client (such as FireFTP, a Firefox add-on) – there are loads of free ones available. Many hosts will provide you with some integrated galleries as part of their agreement, but take a look about before you decide what to use. There are lots to choose from, both commercial packages and free ones. One of the best resources here is the list of user galleries at the start of the sticky. Nobody wants hundreds of carbon copies, but some inspiration never goes amiss. Some free gallery packages you might want to check out:

    Coppermine
    Gallery
    i-gallery
    JAlbum
    Lightbox 2
    Minigal
    Pixelpost
    Postcard Viewer
    Qdig
    Simplegal
    Simpleviewer
    Simple Image Search
    Snipegallery
    Thickbox
    Zenphoto
    4images
    FancyBox
    PHP simple gallery
     
    Last edited: Apr 12, 2009
  4. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    Displaying images on the forums

    Though most people viewing these forums have decent sized screens, some still view on lower resolutions and on mobile devices. To ensure images are easily viewable and loading times are kept down, images must be resized to be no larger than 800x600 unless they are panoramics.

    Hotlinking of images (though this doesn't really apply in this forum) is banned on OcUK, so make sure you use your own webspace or one of the free image uploaders listed above to host your images. You can upload images to these sites straight from your computer and will be given a url link to the picture. Either click the 'insert image' picture and paste the url or wrap vBulletin tags around the image: [​IMG].

    EXIF viewers that display the information stored in a photo are available for both Firefox (EXIF Viewer) and Internet Explorer (Opanda IExif). To retain EXIF data in a photo when saving in Photoshop, use the 'Save as' command rather than 'Save for web'. JPEG quality 10 displays fine online and keeps loading times down.

    Jargon buster

    SLR and dSLR
    SLR stands for 'Single Lens Reflex' and SLR cameras use a series of mirrors to allow the user to see the view through the lens through the viewfinder. When talking a shot, the shutter will move for the correct period of time to correctly expose the film or sensor of a (digital) dSLR. Many modern dSLRs have a 'live view' function that either constantly exposes either the main sensor or a secondary one to display an image on the rear screen. Most dSLR cameras have a sensor smaller than a piece of 35mm film – crop sensors – and different manufacturers use different sized sensors. The most common crop factors are 1.5, 1.6 and 1.7 and to calculate the effective focal range of a lens, it's length should be multiplied by this number (a 50mm lens on a 1.6 crop Canon camera would have an effective focal length of 80mm).

    Prime lens
    A prime lens has a fixed focal length (e.g. 50mm). Prime lenses are often smaller and lighter than equivalent zooms and have better optical properties (less chromatic aberration), being specifically designed for a specific focal length. Focus speeds are generally high and primes often have lower maximum apertures than zoom lenses, making them ideal for low light photography.

    Zoom lens
    These have a number of movable lens elements that can alter the focal length of the lens whilst retaining focus on a set point. Due to the complexity of the assembly and the number of lens elements involved, zooms typically have lower maximum apertures than primes. Zoom lenses are named according to their length (e.g. 70-300mm), which also gives their zoom ratio (100-400 equates to 4:1 or a 4x zoom). Superzooms are zoom lenses that have a high zoom ratio, some being up to 10 or 14x. The concept of 'zoom' associated with point and shoot (P&S) cameras does not apply to SLR cameras, for example a 100-400 having a large end focal length (and effective magnification of the subject), but remains only a 4x zoom.

    Telephoto lens
    The term telephoto is often exchanged, incorrectly, with zoom (although a zoom lens may be a telephoto, it need not be). By default, the focal length of a lens equals the distance between the front element of the lens and the sensor or film. With long lenses, the sheer length and weight of lenses would be a huge problem (telephoto primes are large and heavy enough as it is) and telephoto lenses incorporate a special lens group known as a telephoto group to allow the front element to be closer to the camera than would otherwise be possible.


    Macro lens
    The point of a macro lens is to achieve a life-size (or as close as possible, or larger) image of an object on the sensor. True macro lenses, therefore, have a ratio of 1:1 (life-size) or higher (e.g. 5:1). Many zooms now have a 'macro' function, which do not allow true macro ratios to be achieved, but can attain around 1:4. Larger ratios can be achieved with extension tubes places between the camera and the lens, close-up lenses placed in front of the normal lens, reversed lenses and with a combination of a reversed lens and a normally placed lens.

    Wide angle lens
    Wide angle lenses have a focal length shorter than the diagonal length of the sensor or film. Full-frame and film cameras, therefore, have wide angle lenses with focal lengths below 35mm. When the crop factor of a common dSLR is taken into account, in order for a similar effect to be achieved, a lens must have an even lower focal length – many popular lenses being 10-20mm. At low focal lengths, significant barrel distortion is seen in the image, giving a fish eye effect.

    Acronyms

    Canon ...

    DO: Diffractive Optics.
    EF: Electro-Focus. Focus motor built into the lens - common to all EOS-mount lenses.
    EF-S: Electro-Focus Short Back Focus. Lenses made specifically for crop-sensor EOS digital cameras. These lenses will not work on full frame bodies.
    EOS: Electro-Optical System. Auto-focussing (d)SLR cameras.
    IS: Image Stabilisation.
    L: Luxury. Professional quality lenses.
    USM: Ultrasonic Motor. Fast and quiet in-lens focusing motor

    Nikon ...

    AF-I: Autofocus Internal Motor. The AF motor is in the lens, rather than in the camera body.
    AF-S: Autofocus Silent Wave Motor.
    DC: Defocus Control. Allows control the spherical aberration of the lens.
    ED: Extra-low Dispersion. Lens elements made to help correct chromatic aberration
    G: D-type lenses. These lenses have camera controlled aperture settings only.
    IF: Internal Focus. The front element of the lens does not move during focussing - the physical length of the lens remains constant.
    Micro: Macro.

    Sigma ...

    DC: Lenses made specifically for crop-sensor digital cameras.
    EF: Dual Focus.
    DG: Lenses for on both crop and full-frame cameras.
    DL: Deluxe. Indicates Sigma low-end lenses.
    EX: Excellence. Indicates Sigma high-end lenses.
    HSM: HyperSonic Motor. Fast and quiet in-lens focusing motor.
    HZ: Hyperzoom. Lenses with extended zoom and focusing range.
    ASP: Aspherical. Compact lenses with a reduced number of internal elements.
    APO: Apochromatic. Lens elements made from special low-dispersion (SLD) to minimise colour aberration.
    OS: Optical stabilisation. In-lens image stabilisation
    RF: Rear focussing. The rear lens group is moved to achieve focussing.
    IF: Inner focus. Inner lens groups are moved to achieve focussing - the physical length of the lens doesn't change.

    Pentax ...

    AL: Aspherical Lens.
    ED: Extra low Dispersion. Lens elements produced to help correct chromatic aberration.
    J: Lenses without external aperture ring - camera controlled aperture.

    Sony ...

    AIS: Active Interface Shoe. An electro-mechanical hot shoe on the lens for accessories such as microphones and lights. All power for the accessory is taken through this interface.

    Tamron ...

    Di: Lenses with optics designed to combat the increased reflectivity of digital sensors.

    Tokina ...

    ATX: Advanced Technology-Extra.
    SZX: Manual focus lenses.

    Aperture, shutter speed and ISO

    Although there is no substitute for experimentation and trial and error, understanding the basics of aperture, shutter speed and ISO sensitivity is a good starting point. These three factors control the exposure of a photo. For greater depth, Bryan Peterson's 'Understanding Exposure' is a good buy and various guides can be found by Googling – some of these are in the 'courses and tutorials' part of the 'useful links' section, above and are well worth a read.

    The aperture is the opening in the lens that allows light into the camera, its size being controlled by the diaphragm. The aperture of the lens is expressed as an 'f number', the ratio of focal length to aperture diameter. Understanding that this is a ratio helps to explain the apparent paradox that the largest apertures have the lowest f numbers (e.g. f/2.8 is a wide aperture, allowing a lot of light in) and the smallest apertures have the highest numbers (e.g. f/32, allowing very little light in). Lenses have pre-set 'f stop' values that can be selected often in thirds of a stop. Although it is not that important to know, a single whole stop increase (e.g. from f/2.8 to f/4) corresponds to a factor of √2 decrease in the size of the aperture. More importantly, this will halve the amount of light entering the lens. A single f stop decrease (e.g. from f/5.6 to f/4) corresponds to a factor of √2 increase in the size of the aperture and will double the amount of light entering the lens.

    Apart from controlling the amount of light entering the camera, the other main effect of aperture is in controlling the depth of field. This is the distance in front and behind a subject that appears to be in focus and is controlled by the distance of the subject, the focal length of the lens and the aperture (f number) being used. Larger apertures (e.g. f/2.8) give a shallower depth of field, smaller apertures (e.g. f/18) giving a larger depth of field and making more of the image appear to be in focus. A useful DoF calculator can be found here.

    Shutter speed is the duration of time for which the camera exposes the sensor or film. In lower levels of light, the shutter has to remain open longer than in higher levels of light for the same amount of light to enter the camera and for a set level of exposure to be achieved. Shutter speed is important, therefore, as longer shutter speeds mean that camera-shake and vibrations within the camera and lens can blur a photo. Controlled blur can often be the intent of a photo, however, for example when panning with a car to achieve a sense of movement. As a rough guideline to ensure a reasonable hit rate of acceptably sharp photos is to use a shutter speed of 1/focal length. This means that for a 50mm lens, a shutter speed of 1/50 seconds could be used and for a 300mm lens, 1/300s. With practice, sharp photos can be achieved with shutter speeds lower than this but with some longer lenses, you will never get a fast enough shutter speed using this calculation to allow you to easily hand-hold the camera and lens whilst shooting. To reliably achieve sharp longer exposures, monopods and especially tripods help massively. To a more limited extent, image stabilisation (either built into the camera or lens) also allows use of slower shutter speeds. Shutter speeds can also be increased by use of wider apertures (allowing more light into the camera) and by use of a higher sensitivity (see below).

    ISO (or sometimes ASA with film) is the sensitivity of the film or the sensor to light. Higher sensitivities mean that less light is required to reach a set exposure level and faster shutter speeds can be used. As above, this has the effect of reducing the impact of camera shake and allows sharper images to be achieved. Within the exposure times capable of most cameras, there is a relationship that doubling the sensitivity (e.g. ISO 400 to 800) of the film or sensor and halving the exposure time (through doubling the shutter speed) will give the same exposure. A side effect of increasing sensitivity is an increase in image noise, that can be seen as an increase in the 'graininess' of an image. Many digital cameras have settings to reduce image noise when taking long exposures and grain can be reduced relatively effectively in post-processing. Nevertheless, there is no substitute for using as lower ISO as possible in order to avoid image noise in the first place.
     
    Last edited: Apr 2, 2009
  5. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    Filters

    It is generally accepted that there is no substitute (in the form of post processing) to getting a photo right in the first place. With both film and digital photography, manipulation can help, but can never truly bring out parts of an image that are simply not recorded correctly (through under or overexposure). Filters can help massively in this respect and there is likely to be a filter for virtually every occasion. The most commonly used filters for digital photography include polarising, UV, neutral density, graduated neutral density and warming or cooling filters.

    Filters are either circular and screw onto the front of the lens or are square or rectangular, sitting in a frame in front of the lens. In comparison to a front filter, a screw-on filter will, naturally, only work with a lens of a certain diameter (e.g. 77, 58 and 52mm). Screw-on filters can also introduce vignetting on wide angle lenses if they are not thin enough.

    Common manufacturers of screw-on filters are B+W, Canon, Cokin, Hoya, Nikon, Sigma and Tiffen. Common manufacturers of front filters are Cokin and Lee. These are simplest to view and compare on-line and it is obvious immediately that the prices vary considerably. With filters, as with all aspects of photography, you generally get what you pay for. Well-respected brands are B+W and Hoya (the Pro range) from the screw-ons and Lee from the front filters. Naturally cheaper alternatives can also be excellent, but the cheapest may introduce some colour casting or impair the contrast of an image.

    UV
    UV filters, whilst probably the most common filter a type around, are a throwback to the days of film SLRs. Film is sensitive to UV light and its presence can dramatically reduce the contrast of an image recorded with film. It was necessary, therefore, to eliminate this element of light from entering the lens using UV filters. These are clear and are should not noticeably effect an image recorded on a dSLR, although cheap UV filters have the potential to cause flare, reduce sharpness and contrast and introduce a colour cast to an image. As lenses nowadays have UV coatings on the lens elements themselves, the only real reason for these filters is protection. Their effectiveness here is highly debated – some would always use them, some never would.

    Polarising
    Circular polarising filters can be used with a dSLR to reduce the amount of reflected light that passes into the lens. These have the effect of reducing the contrast between land and sky and will reduce glare and reflections. The polarising effect depends on the time of the day (the position of the sun in the sky) and the direction in respect to this in which the photo is being taken. The polarising effect will be strongest when the direction of the camera is perpendicular to (at 90° to) the direction of the light from the sun. It should be noted that polarisers greatly reduce the amount of light entering the lens (so camera shake needs to be taken into account) and that on wide lenses, sky colouration can be uneven.

    Neutral density (ND) and Graduated ND (GND)
    These filters reduce the amount of light entering the lens, increasing the exposure time that could otherwise be achieved. This may be to smooth water movements in a river or waterfall or when achieving a shallow depth of field in bright light, for example. Graduated neutral density filters blend from light to dark, allowing the top and bottom of an image to be exposed differently. This is useful when correctly exposing images with high levels of dynamic range. With RAW images recorded by digital cameras, a similar effect can be achieved in Photoshop (through exposure blending or by creating a high dynamic range (HDR) image), but this does not give the flexibility of using a filter. GNDs may be soft-edged (a gentle blend) or hard-edged (a harder blend from light to dark) and although soft-edged GNDs may be more versatile, for scenes where changes in light are harsh (e.g. a sea-scape), hard-edged GNDs are more useful.

    Amount of light reduction .........................................................................
    f-stops .......... fraction .......... Hoya, B+W and Cokin ......... Lee and Tiffen .....
    .... 1 ................ 1/2 .................... ND2, ND2X ..................... 0.3 ND ..........
    .... 2 ................ 1/4 .................... ND4, ND4X ..................... 0.6 ND ..........
    .... 3 ................ 1/8 .................... ND8, ND8X ..................... 0.9 ND ..........
    .... 4 ............... 1/16 ................. ND16, ND16X .................... 1.2 ND ..........
    .... 5 ............... 1/32 ................. ND32, ND32X .................... 1.5 ND ..........
    .... 6 ............... 1/64 ................. ND64, ND64X .................... 1.8 ND ..........

    Warming and Cooling
    These filters alter the white balance of the light reaching the sensor and can be used to correct a colour cast or create one. With dSLRs, these are not as useful as they once were, as much white balance work is done in-camera or in post production with a RAW image. However, in situations where there are very unusual colour casts that dramatically effect the white balance (e.g. underwater), these filters massively help reduce the amount of work required in post processing.

    What to consider when buying?

    What type of camera is best for me / Do I actually need a dSLR?
    This is always the first question when buying a camera. How are you going to make use of the features presented by a dSLR? Does the convenience of having a camera that you can put in your pocket appeal? It must be recognised that a dSLR is more of an investment than an instant fix and there are many advantages and disadvantages of them. To achieve the versatility of a good bridge camera in terms of macro and telephoto function with a dSLR requires a large amount of money!

    Some advantages and disadvantages:

    ... Greater versatility offered by interchangeable lenses. Most dSLR systems have a huge range of lenses available to them that are optimised for different budgets and tasks.

    ... Better image quality. At a given resolution, dSLRs will basically always give a better quality of image. This is more pronounced at higher sensitivities (ISO numbers).

    ... Better performance. Typically, digital SLRs have faster autofocus systems, shorter shutter delays, faster continuous shooting and bigger memory buffers.

    ... Better design. dSLR cameras are designed with usability in mind – there is no point having a camera that starts up in a blink if you have to flick through complex menu systems to set up the camera to take a shot.

    ... dSLRs are generally heavier and larger than alternative cameras. The mirror box and sensor size of a dSLR impose a limitation on the minimum size but materials are also generally better and more durable, which adds weight.

    ... Increased complexity. Although most dSLRs have automatic settings, the restrictions imposed by lenses mean that they will never be as versatile as some alternative cameras without changing the lens. Complexity of settings (ISO, shutter speed and aperture, for example) can take some getting used to.

    ... dSLRs have a higher price tag than alternative cameras – especially when extra lenses have to be bought.

    ... dSLR cameras require maintenance. Unless you're planning on never changing the lens on your camera, then over time, dust will get inside. Dust on the sensor can be visible on images (especially at higher aperture values, such as f/18) and requires cleaning.

    What to look for in a dSLR?
    As new cameras are being brought out all of the time, it's difficult in a sticky to keep on top the different ranges, so I'm not going to be talking any specifics here, rather general ideas and thing to think about.

    When buying a new dSLR, the advice of many would be to stick within the two main camera manufacturers of the moment – Canon and Nikon. The two systems provided by these manufacturers give the user the greatest number of accessories and lenses (either from these manufacturers or third-party). There is little to choose between these systems and any advances made by one are relatively quickly matched and surpassed when the rival releases new updates to their lines. Most manufacturers have lines of cameras that cater for all user levels (e.g. in the Canon system, xxxxD < xxxD < xxD <x D, with massive advances being seen across the range).

    However, manufacturers such as Pentax, Olympus and Sony are emerging / re-emerging in the camera market and increasingly have better support by the third party manufacturers, such as Sigma and Tamron, as well as having increasing numbers of accessories available. Some of these have features such as in-built image stabilisation, which are obviously worth a look.

    Features and performance numbers to look out for:

    ... Resolution. Ranging from around 6 megapixels to 21MP, although this isn't necessarily as important as many make out. If you're only going to be printing at A4, you don't need 10MP above an 8MP sensor that might give better image quality.

    ... Frame rate. Ranging from about 1.5fps to around 10fps. Sports shooting might require the ability to rattle off shots, but if you're into landscapes, then what's the need?

    ... Burst depth. There's no point having a high frame rate if the cameras buffer can only take a few shots. The number of shots able to be stored and written at a time depends on the format, but varies greatly.

    ... Autofocus speed and tracking. This is hard to quantify but there are wide gaps in the AF performance of current digital SLRs, especially when tracking moving subjects. The top-end sports cameras are designed to out-perform the rest, but you pay for it.

    ... Ruggedness. Things to look out for here are the materials – either plastic or often a magnesium alloy metal frame – and weather sealing. Though I wouldn't advise it, you could use the professional Canon and Nikon cameras in crowd control probably more effectively than a truncheon.

    ... Viewfinder coverage and brightness. When framing a shot, it's important to be able to see as much of the scene as possible and as clearly as possible. Cameras range from having around 87% viewfinder coverage to 100%, where the whole image to be captured can be seen through the viewfinder.

    ... Viewfinder information. This varies widely but the more information you can see without taking your eye away from the viewfinder (e.g. ISO, shutter speed, number of frames left in the burst), the better.

    ... Start-up, playback, and mode-switching times. It depends on your settings and what sort of formats you're working with, but cameras range from being virtually instantaneous to taking a couple of seconds to get around to obeying.

    ... Ergonomics. Different people prefer different things and different manufactures makes grips of different sizes and buttons in different places. Even if you don't buy on the highstreet, go and try before you buy! Don't underestimate the usefulness of a portrait grip – either on the camera or as part of a battery grip that can be bought separately.

    ... Image stabilization. With respect to the final photo produced, it makes no difference whether stabilisation systems are in the camera or in the lens. Image stabilization has the advantage of letting you see the stabilized version while you're looking through the viewfinder, which can be crucial, but putting the technology in the lens generally results in more expensive lenses. On the other hand, mechanical (sensor-shift) stabilization will work with any lens you buy, making it a less-expensive long-run solution. However, this will not provide stabilisation of the image you see through the viewfinder, as it only works on the sensor.

    ... Image formats. Commonly supported file formats are JPEG, TIFF, RAW and DNG. RAW and DNG (Adobe RAW) allow greater flexibility in post-processing, but are generally larger files, so you get fewer on a memory card.
     
    Last edited: Apr 2, 2009
  6. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    Photographers' rights

    Increasingly, photographers in the UK are coming into conflict with Police officers and PCSOs. This is generally over taking photos in certain areas, or of certain people or places. Often, Police officers and especially PCSOs, as well as the photographers themselves, are not aware of their powers or rights. This has lead to reports of harassment of photographers and it important that you know your rights when out and about. Briefly:

    ... Generally, there are no restrictions on photographing private buildings from a public place. On private land unless there are specific rules, the same is true. In many private areas (concerts, clubs, art galleries etc), there are rules, however, so make sure you know before getting your camera out. Violation of these rules constitutes trespass, although a land-owner, manager or representative (including bouncers etc) have no right to confiscate equipment.

    ... Harassment laws in the UK are complicated. Harassment is causing another person alarm or distress on multiple occasions (not a single incident) and can be a criminal offence in England, Wales and N. Ireland (not Scotland). Use of an image containing recognisable person does not require a model release statement in the UK.

    ... It is a criminal offence to obstruct right of way on a highway (road, cycleway or footpath) in the UK. Obstruction of a Police officer's duty also amounts to a criminal offence.

    ... You are subject to investigation for photographing in a way that effects the safety of the state any
    defence establishments, communications centres and airports. Various other areas are also included – see the pdf below. The Terrorism Act (2000) gives ample power to the police to protect against threats to the state and it is wise to comply with requests for a search, as detention at a police station is possible.

    ... It is a criminal offence to photograph inside a court. Photographs of legal proceedings generally and especially of witnesses or those under the protection of social services or the police is unwise.

    ... You are within your rights to photograph any animal or plant in the UK, providing you are not disturbing the animal or area. In order to photograph protected species at close hand, a license is required (see pdf).

    ... Copyright is automatic in the UK, with no system of copyright registration. It is infringement of copyright to photograph work or other photos. It is not infringement to re-create a work or photo unintentionally, as this is viewed under copyright law as an independent creation. Photographing works viewable in a public place does not infringe copyright.

    ... Photos of bank notes are illegal unless permission has been given by the relevant bank.

    This has been summarised from this pdf document, although it was made in 2004. Although it's important that you know your rights, it's also important that you don't give photographers in general a bad name through your actions. Remember that some courtesy and taking the time to talk to someone is generally the best plan! OcUK, myself and the authors of the pdf accept no responsibility for anything that may result from following these guidelines. Greater detail on the power of PCSOs can be found here and a useful table outlining their powers is here (their powers vary according to area).

    Recent changes under anti-terrorism laws have important consequences for photographers and can be summarised here.
     
    Last edited: Jul 16, 2009
  7. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    Reserved for future additions.
     
    Last edited: Apr 2, 2009
  8. A.N.Other

    Sgarrista

    Joined: Nov 6, 2005

    Posts: 8,055

    Location: MK45

    For sale posts

    If you have some photography kit for sale and would like to bring it to the attention of those who frequent this forum, you can post in this thread with a link to the Member's Market, a brief description and a price. Please do not post links to companies that may be competitors to OcUK or to other forums. All selling should be through the Member's Market (MM) and for sale threads outside of the MM will be deleted. If you cannot access the Member's Market, you do not fulfil some of the criteria. Please see the F.A.Q. for more information.

    Please note that private messages are disabled on these forums and if you want to contact a member about their items, please take it to e-mail. Addresses can be found in a user's profile or in their trust.

    Once an item is sold, please RTM your post in this sticky so that it can be removed by a Don. A useful sticky is a clean sticky!

    Post here to be added to the member's gallery list

    If you want to be added to the list at the top of this sticky, post in here. Your post will be RTMed for you when it's been added.
     
    Last edited: Apr 2, 2009
  9. TwoSaints

    Mobster

    Joined: Dec 19, 2007

    Posts: 2,663

    Location: Newton Aycliffe

  10. yantorsen

    PermaBanned

    Joined: Jul 26, 2007

    Posts: 3,585

    Location: Coventry

    *Edited*
     
    Last edited: Nov 22, 2008
  11. ^^Gord^^

    Wise Guy

    Joined: Oct 20, 2002

    Posts: 1,949

    Location: Nottingham

    SOLD - This post can be deleted now. Thanks!

    Gord.
     
    Last edited: Sep 2, 2008
  12. Gipo

    Hitman

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    Posts: 717

    Location: SE London

  13. ricky1981

    Mobster

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    Location: New Zealand

  14. ^^Gord^^

    Wise Guy

    Joined: Oct 20, 2002

    Posts: 1,949

    Location: Nottingham

    SOLD PLEASE DELETE!
     
    Last edited: Sep 16, 2008
  15. King4aDay

    Mobster

    Joined: Sep 4, 2003

    Posts: 4,048

    Location: Edinburgh/Cornwall

    Nikon 70-300VR for sale here
     
  16. yantorsen

    PermaBanned

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    Posts: 3,585

    Location: Coventry

    103
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2008
  17. yantorsen

    PermaBanned

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    Location: Coventry

    104
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2008
  18. Braeden

    Hitman

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    Location: West Yorkshire

  19. peterattheboro

    Capodecina

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    Location: Middlesbrough

  20. 33L

    Wise Guy

    Joined: Sep 25, 2006

    Posts: 1,989

    Location: Windy Sheffield